Marksmanship Hunter DPS Guide — Shadowlands 9.1

Last updated on Sep 11, 2021 at 08:25 by Azortharion 90 comments
General Information

Welcome to our Marksmanship Hunter guide for World of Warcraft — Shadowlands 9.1. Here, you will learn how to play as a Marksmanship Hunter in both raids and Mythic+ dungeons: from the very beginning to maximizing your DPS.

If you were looking for TBC Classic content, please refer to our TBC Classic Marksmanship Hunter guide.

1.

Marksmanship Hunter Overview

Marksmanship is the least mobile Hunter spec, as it is the only spec that has to deal with long cast times during which you cannot move. From a playstyle perspective, Marksmanship is relatively simple with only a few central abilities you must understand to play the spec optimally.

2.

Strengths and Weaknesses

V Strengths
  • +Very bursty damage profile.
  • +Very high mobility, although not as high as Beast Mastery.
  • +Does not rely on Pet AI.
X Weaknesses
  • -High importance on planning ahead with casts.
  • -Lack of utility and survivability without a pet.
3.

Patch 9.1 Changes for Hunters

We are maintaining a list of changes for Hunters, so you can see what changes with every patch of Shadowlands. Be sure to also check out Marksmanship's specific changes this patch.

4.

Covenant Recommendation Change in Patch 9.1

ATTENTION

As of Patch 9.1 the recommended Covenant for Marksmanship Hunter HAS CHANGED. Please check out the Covenant page of this guide for more information.

5.

Leveling a Marksmanship Hunter

If you want to play a Marksmanship Hunter, but currently do not have one at max level, you can check out our leveling guide for tips on your journey.

Once you reach max level, it can be somewhat overwhelming to completely change the way you play by suddenly implementing a large number of addons in a short space of time, especially if they have a heavy visual impact on your UI. We recommend using some of the more basic addons recommended on our Addons page below while leveling, so that you have more time to get used to them during the easier phases of playing your class.

6.

Basics of Marksmanship Hunter Gameplay

Marksmanship Hunter is a spec about your managing your cooldown abilities, and managing your movement to some extent. Your burst windows during cooldowns are also important, and there is often a strict order for your abilities to follow. It is a somewhat slow spec that is easy to pick up.

Most of your time will be spent generating and spending Focus with Steady Shot Icon Steady Shot and Aimed Shot Icon Aimed Shot/Arcane Shot Icon Arcane Shot respectively. Aimed Shot Icon Aimed Shot and Rapid Fire Icon Rapid Fire are your big spender and generator respectively, and you always wanna cast them off cooldown with minimal delay.

If you are an absolute beginner to the spec, but would like to learn the basic fundamentals of the class, recommend looking through the Spell Summary first, as well as the Easy Mode page linked below.

Below, you will find the most important pages for learning the intricacies of the spec.

7.

How to Gear Up A Marksmanship Hunter

Despite the fact that gearing has become more challenging, due to the huge number of variables that depend on your character, you can find information on how best to gear as Marksmanship on our dedicated gearing page, which includes the current Best-in-Slot items from this tier.

Once you have started to gear, you will need to make sure that you have the appropriate consumables, gems, enchants, and more. We have a dedicated page for exactly this, as shown below, as well as the stats page, where you can find more information on the possibility of a changing stat priority and the necessary changes you may need to make for consumables.

8.

Endgame as a Marksmanship Hunter

Starting off as Marksmanship can look very different from the absolute end-game. Our Mythic+, Torghast, Raiding, and PvP guides can guide you to performing as well as possible, regardless of your focus in end-game content.

9.

Improving as a Marksmanship Hunter

If you are finding your performance lackluster, but are not sure where you are going wrong, you can check out the pages below for potential tips, or answers to questions you may have.

10.

Changelog

  • 11 Sep. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Added Spirit Attunement to the priority list of Enhanced Conduits, and altered the ranking of Brutal Projectiles.
  • 03 Sep. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Added a section for the best Enhanced Soulbind Conduits.
  • 03 Sep. 2021 (gear page): Updated the optimal individual Domination Shards.
  • 18 Aug. 2021 (rotation page): Updated Flayed Shot's place in the opener.
  • 18 Aug. 2021 (Sanctum of Domination page): Added a tip for the Eye of the Jailer.
  • 10 Aug. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the optimal Soulbind for Night Fae.
  • 10 Aug. 2021 (Legendaries): Updated the description of the Bag of Munitions as it is simmable now.
  • 05 Aug. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the optimal Soulbind for Kyrian Mythic+.
  • 02 Aug. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the optimal Soulbind for Kyrian.
  • 02 Aug. 2021 (gear page): Updated the optimal Domination Shard Set Bonus after Blood Link was buffed.
  • 02 Aug. 2021 (Sanctum of Domination page): Added a tip for The Nine.
  • 19 Jul. 2021 (Legendaries): Promoted Surging Shots ahead of Elder Antlers for Mythic+.
  • 19 Jul. 2021 (Sanctum of Domination page): Updated the talent recommendatiosn for Kel'Thuzad.
  • 12 Jul. 2021 (easy mode page): Updated the optimal Soulbind.
  • 12 Jul. 2021 (Patch 9.1 Analysis): Updated thoughts on all of the Covenant-specific Legendaries, and added the July 13th Hunter Buffs to the changes.
  • 12 Jul. 2021 (stats page): Added a note that even though Haste is the worst stat, you do not want none of it. Also noted that Crit is usually better for non-Kyrian MM Hunters.
  • 12 Jul. 2021 (Sanctum of Domination page): Added tips most bosses, and altered the talent/legendary recommendations for some.
  • 12 Jul. 2021 (mythic+ page): Added information about the best Tormented Anima Mythic+ Powers to take.
  • 12 Jul. 2021 (Legendaries): Added the Night Fae, Necrolord, and Venthyr Legendaries to the rankings, as they are easily quantifiable.
  • 12 Jul. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the optimal Soulbind and Covenant, and the relative differences between Covenants.
  • 06 Jul. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the ranking of the Condensed Anima Sphere Icon Condensed Anima Sphere Endurance Conduit.
  • 06 Jul. 2021 (rotation page): Fixed a few issues and bugs with the checkbox system and added a note that the opener section is now affected by the checkboxes too.
  • 06 Jul. 2021 (Legendaries): Added a note that the Pact of the Soulstalkers Legendary stacks.
  • 06 Jul. 2021 (simulations page): Added a link to the Icy Veins Guide to Simming Yourself.
  • 06 Jul. 2021 (spells page): Added Lone Wolf to the Important Passives section.
  • 06 Jul. 2021 (Sanctum of Domination page): Page added.
  • 01 Jul. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Several changes.
    • Removed the Renown stepping where Pelagos gets better at 46. Night Fae is better until Renown 57.
    • Added the Condensed Anima Sphere Icon Condensed Anima Sphere Endurance Conduit to our rankings.
    • Simplified the Covenant/Soulbind table slightly and clarified that it is based on max Renown.
    • Added a note that it is recommended to sim your Covenants and Soulbinds to find out when you might want to switch.
  • 30 Jun. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the optimal 40-Renown Covenant and Soulbind for Mythic+.
  • 30 Jun. 2021 (rotation page): Multiple changes.
    • Added default checked tickboxes for meta setups and talents.
    • Made the checkboxes also affect the Opener Sequence.
    • Removed the AoE Opener Sequence as it has been obsoleted by the checkboxes.
    • Clarified and expanded on Double Tap usage significantly.
    • Changed the priority of casting Trueshot on cooldown.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (rotation page): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (gear page): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (Legendaries): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (Legendaries): Updated the ideal Surging Shots craft slot after the Tazavesh Necklace was nerfed.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (Torghast): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (mythic+ page): Reviewed and approved for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (this page): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (spells page): Reviewed and approved for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (WeakAuras page): Reviewed and approved for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (stats page): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (FAQ page): Reviewed and approved for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (talents page): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (how to improve page): Reviewed and approved for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (simulations page): Reviewed and approved for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (enchants page): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (addons page): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 28 Jun. 2021 (easy mode page): Updated for Patch 9.1.
  • 10 Jun. 2021 (Patch 9.1 Analysis): Added information about the Venthyr-specific Legendary.
  • 12 May 2021 (Patch 9.1 Analysis): Added information about 4 new Covenant-specific Legendaries.
  • 25 Apr. 2021 (Patch 9.1 Analysis): Page created with initial information.
  • 19 Apr. 2021 (mythic+ page): Added information about Binding Shot and Tranquilizing Shot to the utility spells section.
  • 18 Apr. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Removed note about Kyrian having equal/more single-target damage than Night Fae, as this has not been the case since early in the tier.
  • 31 Mar. 2021 (stats page): Updated the general Stat Priority for Marksmanship Hunters.
  • 31 Mar. 2021 (gear page): Updated the BiS Bow's name (it is still the same item, but it had the wrong name listed) and updated the BiS cloak.
  • 31 Mar. 2021 (easy mode page): Updated the general Stat Priority for Marksmanship Hunters.
  • 31 Mar. 2021 (rotation page): Clarified that it does not really matter if you fit 2 casts into Volley on 3 targets and above.
  • 31 Mar. 2021 (spells page): Updated and added the Focus costs and cooldowns of some abilities; added Camouflage to the utility spells list.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (Legendaries): Updated the description of some Legendary recommendations to reflect the Patch 9.0.5 changes.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (Torghast): Reviewed for Patch 9.0.5.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (easy mode page): Reviewed for Patch 9.0.5.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the descriptions of some Covenant, Soulbind, and Conduit recommendations to reflect Patch 9.0.5 changes.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (spells page): Reviewed for Patch 9.0.5.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (talents page): Reviewed for Patch 9.0.5.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (gear page): Added a section dedicated to Valor Point upgrades.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (rotation page): Reviewed for Patch 9.0.5.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (enchants page): Reviewed for Patch 9.0.5.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (mythic+ page): Reviewed for Patch 9.0.5.
  • 09 Mar. 2021 (stats page): Reviewed for Patch 9.0.5.
  • 01 Mar. 2021 (gear page): Separated the Raid and Dungeon BiS Lists.
  • 28 Feb. 2021 (Castle Nathria page): Updated the recommended Talents for Lady Inerva Darkvein.
  • 07 Feb. 2021 (rotation page): Removed Arcane Shot from the opener as it has been found to no longer be a DPS increase.
  • 07 Feb. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the recommended Soulbind trees since Burrs was nerfed to no longer proc multiple DoTs.
  • 04 Feb. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the recommended Soulbind Trees as we now know that Burrs can affect multiple targets from a single proc.
  • 02 Feb. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the recommended Soulbind Trees for Renown 30+, splitting them up by Fortified and Tyrannical Mythic+.
  • 30 Jan. 2021 (rotation page): Several changes.
    • Removed the Focus cap condition for casting Rapid Fire on cooldown.
    • Clarified the rules for casting Arcane Shot during Trueshot.
  • 30 Jan. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Several changes.
    • Cleaned up the Conduits section slightly.
    • Moved Deadly Chain up to be on-par with Sharpshooter's Focus for AoE-heavy scenarios.
    • Altered our Endurance Conduit recommendation to Marksman's Advantage by default for most players.
  • 30 Jan. 2021 (stats page): Clarified that no Haste caps exist that are worth mentioning.
  • 30 Jan. 2021 (talents page): Several minor updates.
    • Made it clearer that Single-Target and Raiding are not synonymous.
    • Clarified that Explosive Shot is not far behind Careful Aim for single-target.
    • Clarified that Chimaera Shot is a niche choice, rather than something that is almost never chosen.
    • Clarified that Steady Focus is better for DPS in all situations where you can keep it up, and that we only use Streamline in situations where we cannot maintain Steady Focus.
  • 18 Jan. 2021 (Castle Nathria page): Updated the recommended Talents for Mythic Stone Legion Generals.
  • 17 Jan. 2021 (rotation page): Added guide to usage of On-Use and Double On-Use Trinkets.
  • 17 Jan. 2021 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Removed some deprecated sections and updated the optimal Soulbind Trees.
  • 09 Jan. 2021 (gear page): Added note about the Inscrutable Quantum Device and altered the name of the BiS weapon to the Night Fae one.
  • 08 Jan. 2021 (Legendaries): Added note about which stats to put on your Legendary Item.
  • 26 Dec. 2020 (mythic+ page): Updated the recommended M+ Sim Methodology.
  • 25 Dec. 2020 (gear page): Updated the BiS List to include Raid Items as well as Mythic+ items.
  • 24 Dec. 2020 (spells page): Updated an error with Aimed Shot's Focus cost.
  • 24 Dec. 2020 (rotation page): Rotational clarifications.
    • Clarified the role of putting up Steady Focus when it is down and how it should be prioritized.
    • Clarified that casting Aimed Shot on cooldown is not a major priority, but that it should be kept off two charges at all times.
  • 16 Dec. 2020 (rotation page): Clarified that Steady Focus should be refreshed during Trueshot as well.
  • 16 Dec. 2020 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated the Conduit Tier List and altered the Tier names to S, A, and B.
  • 16 Dec. 2020 (Castle Nathria page): Updated tips and/or Talent recommendations for Hungering Destroyer, Sludgefist, Stone Legion Generals, and Sire Denathrius.
  • 16 Dec. 2020 (talents page): Updated Volley's description regarding Trick Shots.
  • 11 Dec. 2020 (Torghast): Updated the Tier List location of Soulsteen Pinion and Lens of Elchaver.
  • 11 Dec. 2020 (rotation page): Added note about Serpentstalker's Trickery multidotting in the Multi-Target Section. Also updated the Chimaera Shot section.
  • 11 Dec. 2020 (Castle Nathria page): Updated Talent Recommendations and added new tips for several bosses.
  • 10 Dec. 2020 (Castle Nathria page): Updated the Talent Recommendations for Huntsman Altimor.
  • 08 Dec. 2020 (Castle Nathria page): Updated the page with recommended Talents, Legendaries, and some early playstyle tips for Heroic week.
  • 07 Dec. 2020 (mythic+ page): Added information about best Covenants and Legendaries for Mythic+, and altered the AoE Burst Opener.
  • 04 Dec. 2020 (enchants page): Added Armor Kits to the Chest Enchants section.
  • 04 Dec. 2020 (addons page): Added [@cursor] macros for Wild Spirits and Resonating Arrow.
  • 04 Dec. 2020 (rotation page): Several clarifications to the rotation and opener.
    • Updated Double Tap usage for AoE.
    • Expanded on how to use Volley in 2-target and AoE situations.
    • Added a paragraph under the Trueshot Rotation to explain the goals of it further.
    • Added some AoE Talents like Volley and Explosive Shot to the single-target opener.
  • 03 Dec. 2020 (enchants page): Removed the BFA Agility Gem suggestions from the guide as they were nerfed.
  • 02 Dec. 2020 (rotation page): Updated the Explosive Shot Talent rotation explanation.
  • 01 Dec. 2020 (enchants page): Added optimal Cloak Enchant.
  • 01 Dec. 2020 (rotation page): Rotational Updates.
    • Added Explosive Shot to the main rotation and the multi-target rotation differences.
    • Added Kyrian-specific Double Tap optimization to the Single-Target Rotation.
  • 01 Dec. 2020 (Castle Nathria page): Added placeholder Castle Nathria page.
  • 28 Nov. 2020 (rotation page): Updated the Multi-Target Opener and added a paragraph to explain it.
  • 28 Nov. 2020 (stats page): Updated note about Haste.
  • 28 Nov. 2020 (rotation page): Updated the Single-Target Opener.
  • 27 Nov. 2020 (Legendaries): Added information about which slot to craft your Serpentstalker's Trickery Legendary for.
  • 27 Nov. 2020 (gear page): Updated the Trinket Sims.
  • 27 Nov. 2020 (rotation page): Added Double Tap AoE behaviour to the Multi-Target Rotation.
  • 26 Nov. 2020 (enchants page): Updated the ideal non-raid Weapon Enchant.
  • 26 Nov. 2020 (rotation page): Updated obsolete text referencing some BFA Bosses.
  • 26 Nov. 2020 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Updated some Soulbind viability descriptions.
  • 24 Nov. 2020 (Torghast): Page added.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (talents page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (easy mode page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (mythic+ page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (WeakAuras page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (FAQ page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (spells page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (how to improve page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (stats page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (enchants page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (addons page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (gear page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 23 Nov. 2020 (rotation page): Updated for Shadowlands.
  • 20 Nov. 2020 (Legendaries): Page added.
  • 13 Nov. 2020 (Covenants and Soulbinds): Page added.
  • 30 Oct. 2020 (rotation page): Added information about rotation changes during Volley in the Multi-Target Rotation section.
  • 24 Oct. 2020 (rotation page): Added a paragraph to talk about Potion usage, and removed it from the opener.
  • 22 Oct. 2020 (easy mode page): Updated the Level 50 Talent Recommendation and Stat Priority.
  • 19 Oct. 2020 (rotation page): Fixed Careful Aim's description (above 70% health rather than sub 20% and above 80%.)
  • 19 Oct. 2020 (talents page): Fixed Careful Aim's description (above 70% health rather than above 80%.)
  • 17 Oct. 2020 (mythic+ page): Updated the Level 50 Talent recommendation.
  • 17 Oct. 2020 (talents page): Updated the M+ Talent Cheat Sheet to include Streamline.
  • 16 Oct. 2020 (addons page): Added new, useful macros.
  • 16 Oct. 2020 (rotation page): Updated the AoE Opener Sequence.
  • 15 Oct. 2020 (talents page): Updated the Calling the Shots "X" to a checkmark, as it is viable in certain builds.
  • 15 Oct. 2020 (gear page): Updated the BiS Rings and Azerite Pieces.
  • 14 Oct. 2020 (FAQ page): Updated the recommended pet section.
  • 14 Oct. 2020 (talents page): Fixed an inconsistency in the AoE/M+ Talent Cheat Sheet (changed to Explosive Shot).
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (spells page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (how to improve page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (addons page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (stats page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (simulations page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (gear page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (Ny'alotha page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (talents page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (mythic+ page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (rotation page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (enchants page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (this page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (FAQ page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (easy mode page): Page updated for the Shadowlands pre-patch.
  • 12 Oct. 2020 (WeakAuras page): Page added.
  • 17 Jan. 2020 (spells page): Updated the description of Volley.
  • 13 Jan. 2020 (Crucible of Storms page): This page has been reviewed for the release of Patch 8.3 and no changes are necessary.
  • 13 Jan. 2020 (Battle of Dazar'alor page): This page has been reviewed for the release of Patch 8.3 and no changes are necessary.
  • 13 Jan. 2020 (Uldir page): This page has been reviewed for the release of Patch 8.3 and no changes are necessary.
  • 13 Jan. 2020 (The Eternal Palace page): This page has been reviewed for the release of Patch 8.3 and no changes are necessary.
  • 09 Jan. 2020 (mythic+ page): Added a section about using Bloodlust / Heroism in Mythic+ as a Marksmanship Hunter.
  • 09 Jan. 2020 (enchants page): Updated the Weapon and Chest enchant recommendations.
  • 23 Aug. 2019 (The Eternal Palace page): Added tips for more bosses.
  • 08 Jul. 2019 (The Eternal Palace page): Page added.
  • 24 Jun. 2019 (Uldir page): This page has been reviewed for the release of Patch 8.2 and no changes are necessary.
  • 24 Jun. 2019 (Crucible of Storms page): This page has been reviewed for the release of Patch 8.2 and no changes are necessary.
  • 24 Jun. 2019 (Battle of Dazar'alor page): This page has been reviewed for the release of Patch 8.2 and no changes are necessary.
  • 13 May 2019 (Crucible of Storms page): Added Marksmanship tips for Uu'nat.
  • 01 May 2019 (Crucible of Storms page): Added Marksmanship tips for The Restless Cabal.
  • 14 Apr. 2019 (Uldir page): This page has been reviewed for Crucible of Storms and no changes are necessary.
  • 14 Apr. 2019 (Crucible of Storms page): Guide added.
  • 14 Apr. 2019 (Battle of Dazar'alor page): This page has been reviewed for Crucible of Storms and no changes are necessary.
  • 22 Mar. 2019 (Battle of Dazar'alor page): Added tips for Jaina on Mythic Difficulty.
  • 20 Feb. 2019 (Battle of Dazar'alor page): Added boss tips for multiple bosses on Mythic.
    • Added tips for Stormwall Blockade (Mythic).
    • Added tips for King Rastakhan (Mythic).
    • Added tips for High Tinker Mekkatorque (Mythic).
    • Added tips for Opulence (Mythic).
    • Added tips for Conclave of the Chosen (Mythic).
  • 05 Feb. 2019 (Battle of Dazar'alor page): Added boss tips for Jadefire Masters (Mythic) and altered the talent recommendations.
  • 03 Feb. 2019 (Battle of Dazar'alor page): Added boss tips for Champion of the Light and Grong (Mythic).
  • 21 Jan. 2019 (Battle of Dazar'alor page): Added boss tips for Marksmanship Hunter in Battle of Dazar'alor.
  • 10 Dec. 2018 (Uldir page): Added more specifically useful tips for Marksmanship on each boss in Uldir Mythic.
  • 03 Sep. 2018 (Uldir page): Added additional content for Uldir's release.
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